STATE NORMAL SCHOOL SALEM, MASSACHUSETTS Fifty-sixth Year 19 6-1907 FIFTY-THIRD YEAR OF THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT SALEM, MASS. V j -■•-&'- 1906-190?. BOSTON : WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 18 Post Office Square. 1907. Approved by The State Board of Publication. o Q en O o _ State Board of Education. Established 1837. His Excellency CURTIS GUILD, Jr. His Honor EBEN S. DRAPER. Clinton Q. Richmond, A.B., George I. Aldrich, A.M., . Ella Lyman Cabot, Albert E. Winship, Litt. D., Thomas B. Fitzpatrick, Caroline Hazard, A.M., Litt. D Joel D. Miller, A.M., Kate Gannett Wells, North Adams Brookline, Boston, Somerville, Brookline, Wellesley, Leominster, Boston, TERM EXPIRES May 25, 1913. May 25, 1914. May 25, 1907. May 25, 1908. May 25, 1909. May 25, 1910. May 25, 1911. May 25, 1912. OFFICERS OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION. George H. Martin, A.M., Secretary, Lynn. Caleb B. Tillinghast, A.M., Clerk and Treasurer, . . Boston. John T. Prince, Ph.D., Agent, West Newton. Julius E. Warren, Agent, Barre. James W. MacDonald, A.M., Agent, Stoneham. Frederic L. Burnham, Agent, Cambridge. BOARD OF VISITORS. Ella Lyman Cabot. Joel D. Miller, A.M. Instructors. JOSEPH ASBURY PITMAN, Principal. Theory and Practice of Teaching, History of Education. Harriet Laura Martin, Algebra, Geometry. Jessie Putnam Learoyd, Botany, Englis.li. Charles Eugene Adams, Geology, Physics, Chemistry. Charles Frederick Whitney, Manual Arts. William Charles Moore, S.B Geology, Geography. Mary Alice Warren, . . Biology, Physiology, Physical Training. Isabella Gertrude Knight, A.B., Library. Gertrude Brown Goldsmith, A.B Biology, Psychology. Frances Boutelle Dkane, Secretary, History. Sarah Louise Baker, English, Arithmetic. Helen Hood Rogers, Reading, Physical Training. Cassie Lucretia Paine, Critic. Fred Willis Archibald, Music. Maud Oldham, English, Literature. Charles Edward Newell, Manual Arts. PRACTICE SCHOOLS. ALTON CLIFFORD CHURBUCK, . Principal, Eighth Grade Maud Sarah Wheeler, Marjorie Huse, . Bessie Jordan Welch, Mabel Lucile Hobbs, Mary Elizabeth James, . Delia Frances Campbell, Helen Merrill Dillingham, Louise Farrington, . Alice Martha Wyman, Assistant, Seventh Grade. Sixth Grade. Fifth Grade. Fourth Grade. Third Grade. Second Grade. First Grade. Kindergarten. Kindergarten - 1 1 Bertram School, Willow and Summit avenues Officers of the Salem Normal Association, 1904=1907. Mrs. Mary (Cate) Smith. West Roxbury (Class XLV.) , Miss Jessie P. Learotd. Danvers (Class LI.). . Miss Mabel T. Bue.vham, Essex (Class LXXXIV.). Miss Dorothea C. Sawtelle. Peabody (Class LXVIII.) Miss Maud S. Wheeler. Salem (Class LVII.) . . Mrs. Mart (Comet) Texxet, Brookline (Class LXIX.) Miss E. Adelaide Towle, Salem (Class XXVIII.) . Miss Mart J. Vnrrow, Cambridge (Class XLVIIL). Mrs. Fannie (Phillips) Andrews, Boston (Class LVII.) Miss Elizabeth W. Richardson. Salem (Class LXL). lent. \t. First Secretary. Second Secretary. Treasurer. Dirt : Officers, Senior Class. Alice Iff. Bresnahan. Preside/-. Alice Iff. Locke, '. Vice-President. Bertha S. Davis Secretory. Berxice J. Andrews Treasurer. .Members of the School Council. J. Asblrt Pitman, . Harriet L. Martin. Gertrude B. Goldsmith Alice Iff. Bresnahan. Bertha S. Davis. Abbie I. Patten. Ethel M. Gradt. Rosalind F. Coreln, Mildred A. Wetmoke •1 [Fact ■ 1 I \ Senior Class. J 1 I \ Junior Class. I J Calendar for 1907=1908. Spring Recess. From close of school on Friday, March 29, 1907, to Tuesday, April 9, 1907, at 9.20 a M. Graduation. Tuesday, June 25, 1907, at 10.30 a.m. First Entrance Examinations. Thursday, June 27, 1907. 8.30-9.30 a.m. — Registration. 9.30-11.30 a.m. —Group I. 11.30 A.M.-12.30 p.m. — Group III. 2-4 p.m. — Group IV. Friday, June 28, 1907. 9.30-11.30 a.m. — Group II. 11.30 a.m-12.30 p.m. — Group V. Second Entrance Examinations. Tuesday and Wednesday, Sept. 10 and 11, 1907. (Hours and order as above.) Beginning of School Year. Thursday, Sept. 12, 1907, at 9.20 a.m. Thanksgiving Recess. From Wednesday, 12 M., preceding Thanksgiving Day, to the following Tuesday, at 9.20 a.m. 8 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Christmas Recess. From close of school on Friday, Dec. 20, 1907, to Tuesday, Dec. 31, 1907, at 9.20 a.m. Beginning of Second Half=year. Tuesday, Jan. 28, 1908. Spring Recess. From close of school on Friday, March 28, 1908, to Tuesday, April 8, 1908, at 9.20 A.M. Graduation. Tuesday, June 24, 1908, at 10.30 a.m. First Entrance Examinations. Thursday and Friday, June 26 and 27, 1908. (Hours and order as above.) Second Entrance Examinations. Tuesday and Wednesday, Sept. 9 and 10, 1908. (Hours and order as above.) Note. — The regular weekly holiday of the school is on Monday, but the practice schools conform to the practice of the other public schools in Salem, and have their holiday on Saturday. The practice schools open the second week in September and close on June 28. Vacations diiring the school year are from Christmas to New Year's, inclusive, and for the week beginning with the first Monday in April. The telephone call of the school is " Salem, 375." The principal's residence is at 266 Lafayette Street, and his telephone call is 669-12. X z State Normal School, Salem, Mass. HISTORICAL SKETCH. The State Xormal School at Salem was opened to students Sept. 12, 1854. It was the fourth normal school established by the State of Massachusetts. Indirectly it was the outcome of steps taken to provide a new location for the first normal school in the State, which was opened at Lexington. The old school was not transferred to Salem, but the Legislature directed the State Board of Education to establish a new one in Essex Count}', and this city was finally chosen as its location. The first building of the school stood at the corner of Broad and Summer streets. Its cost, including site and equipment, slightly exceeded $20,000. The city of Salem erected the build- ing, and received in partial compensation the State appropria- tion of $6,000 and a contribution of $2,000 from the Eastern Railroad Company. The building was enlarged and improved in 1860, and again in 1871. After twenty-five years the accommodations proved inadequate to meet the increased demands made upon modern normal schools. The Legislature of the Commonwealth consequently made generous provisions for a new building. "Work was begun in November, 1893, and the building was first occupied by the school Dec. 2, 1896. The site, building and equipment represent an expenditure of $300,000 ; and it is believed that the Common- wealth here possesses a structure as complete and convenient as any of its kind in this country. THE SCHOOL BUILDING. The building is located in the southern part of the city^ — a section devoted chiefly to residential purposes, — in a command- ing position at the junction of the electric car lines from Lynn 10 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. and Marblehead. It is constructed of buff brick, with light- colored stone and terra-cotta trimmings, and it has three stories and a basement. Facing northward, it is 180 feet in length from east to west, and the two wings are each 140 feet from north to south. In the basement are located the heating and ventilating apparatus, the toilet and play rooms for the pupils of the model schools, besides the gymnasium with its adjoining dressing room, the industrial laboratory, bicycle room, lunch room, and store rooms for supplies and materials. On the first floor, in the central part of the structure, are the toilet and cloak rooms, furnished with individual lockers, for the use of the normal students. Access to this portion of the build- ing is provided by means of two outside doors. In each wing is another entrance for the pupils of the practice schools. The rooms for these schools — nine in number, besides six recitation rooms connected with them — are upon the east, south and west sides, and are all large and well lighted. Including the kinder- garten, they are intended to accommodate 350 pupils. The centra] portion of the second floor is occupied by the assembly and study room of the normal school. It is about 60 by 85 feet in size, and can accommodate 250 single desks and chairs. The remainder of the floor contains the principal's office, reception room, faculty room, retiring room, text-book room, library, and other recitation and work rooms. The third floor is largely devoted to the various departments of science, including physics,. chemistry, botanj^ geography, min- eralogy and zoology. One of the features is an excellent lecture room, with seats arranged in tiers, for lectures or similar work. Two rooms on the north side furnish admirable accommodations for the work in drawing. The size and lighting of the rooms are conspicuous features of the building. The corridors are also noticeable for their width and cheerful aspect. The windows are many and lofty, and the glass is of the finest and clearest quality. The heating and ventilating plant is ample; the blackboards, entirely of slate, are generous in size; combination gas and elec- tric chandeliers are provided for lighting; from the principal's office speaking tubes radiate to all the important rooms; while a rn 3D O STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 11 program clock, with its electric appliances, regulates the move- ments of the school. The interior finish throughout is of oak, and all the furniture of the building is in keeping. DECORATIONS. It is generally conceded that no building or schoolroom is finished or furnished which lacks beautiful and artistic dec- orations, not only because these objects are beautiful in them- selves, but because of the refining and educative value. There is a silent influence resulting from the companionship of good pictures or casts, elevating the thought, and creating a dislike for the common, ugly and inferior type of decoration so often seen. Such works of art, well chosen and hung, may exert a helpful influence in other branches of study as well as in art. With these thoughts in mind, the pictures and casts in the building were selected and placed in the various rooms and corri- dors, and they have served their purpose thus far in creating a taste for and an appreciation of good things. There are many pictures of historic interest, cathedrals, colon- nades, arches and temples, which have proved of value in geog- raphy and history. There are photographs from works of mas- ters such as Corot, Millet, Mauve, Jacque, Israels and others, which are full of helpful suggestions in literature, language, and nature study. These works of art have been presented by the State, by stu- dents and teachers, and by generous friends of the school, to whom due acknowledgment is made upon another page. THE TEACHERS AND STUDENTS. The school during its history has had five principals and sev- enty-three assistant teachers. The development of the practice schools began in 1897, and with them twenty-three persons have been connected as teachers. Sixteen teachers are now required in the normal school and ten in the practice schools. More than five thousand students have attended the school, of whom fifty-three per cent, have received either certificates or diplomas. The proportion of those who complete the course has been increasing steadily in recent years. 12 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SAL KM. REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION. Candidates for admission must, if young women, have at- tained the age of sixteen years, and if young men, the age' of seventeen years. Their fitness for admission will be deter- mined : — (1) By their standing in a physical examination. (2) By their moral character. (3) By their high school record. (4) By a written examination. (5) By an oral examination. Physical Examination. The State Board of Education adopted the following vote March 7, 1901 : — That the visitors of the several normal schools he authorized and directed to provide for a physical examination of candidates for admission to the normal schools, in order to determine whether they are free from any disease or infirmity which would unfit them for the office of teacher, and also to examine any student at any time in the course, to determine whether his "physical condition is such as to warrant his continuance in the school. floral Character. Candidates must present certificates of good moral character. In deciding whether the}?' shall prepare themselves to become teachers, candidates should note that the vocation requires more than mere freedom from disqualifying defects; it demands vir- tues of a positive sort that shall make their impress for good upon those who are taught. High School Record. It may be said, in general, that if the ordinary work of a good statutory high school is well done, candidates should have no difficulty in meeting the academic tests to which they may be subjected. They cannot be too earnestly urged, however, to avail themselves of the best high school facilities attainable in a four years' course, even though they should pursue studies to an extent STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 13 not insisted on, or take studies not prescribed, in the admission requirements. The importance of a good record in the high school cannot be overestimated. Principals are requested to furnish the normal schools with records of the high school standing of candidates. The stronger the evidence of character, scholarship and promise, of whatever kind, candidates bring, especially from schools of high reputation and from teachers of good judgment and fear- less expression, the greater confidence they may have in guarding themselves against the contingencies of an examination and of satisfying the examiners as to their fitness. Written Examination. The examinations will embrace papers on the following groups of subjects, a single paper with a maximum time allowance of two hours to cover each of groups I., II. and IV., and a single paper with a maximum time allowance of one hour to cover each of groups III. and Y. (five papers with a maximum time allow- ance of eight hours) : — I. Language. — (a) English, with its grammar and litera- ture, and (b) either Latin or French. II. Mathematics. — (a) Algebra and (b) plane geometry. III. United States History. — The history and civil govern- ments of Massachusetts and the United States, with related geography and so much of English history as is directly con- tributory to a knowledge of United States history. IV. Science. — (a) Physiology and hygiene and (b) and (c) any two of the following, — physics, chemistry, physical geography and botany, provided one of the two selected is either physics or chemistry. Y. Drawing and Music. — (a) Elementary mechanical and freehand drawing with any one of the topics, — form, color and arrangement, and (&) music. Oral Examination. Each candidate will be required to read aloud in the presence of the examiners. He will also be questioned orally either upon some of the foregoing subjects or upon other matters within his 14 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. experience, in order that the examiners may gain some impres- sion about his personal characteristics and his use of language, as well as to give him an opportunity to furnish any evidences of qualification that might not otherwise become known to them.' General Requirement in English for All Examinations. No candidates will be accepted whose written English is nota- bly deficient in clear and accurate expression, spelling, punctua- tion, idiom or division of paragraphs, or whose spoken English exhibits faults so serious as to make it inexpedient for the normal school to attempt their correction. The candidate's English, therefore, in all oral and written examinations will be subject to the requirements implied in the statement here made, and marked accordingly. Special Directions for the Written Examinations. Group I. — Language. (a) English. — The subjects for examination in English will be the same as those agreed upon by the colleges and high tech- nical schools of New England, and now quite generally adopted throughout the United States. 1. Reading and Practice. — A limited number of books will be set for reading. The candidate will be required to present evidence of a general knowledge of the subject-matter and spirit of the books, and to answer simple questions on the lives of the authors. The form of examination will usually be the writing of a paragraph or two on each of a few topics to be chosen by the candidate from a considerable number set before him in the examination paper. In place of a part or the whole of this test, the candidate may present an exercise book properly certified by his instructor, containing compositions or other written work done in connection with the reading of the books. The books set for this part of the examination are : — 1906, 1907 and 1908. — Shakespeare's Macbeth and The Mer- chant of Venice; The Sir Roger cle Coverley Papers in The Spectator; Irving's Life of Goldsmith; Coleridge's The Ancient Mariner; Scott's Ivanhoe and The Lady of the Lake; Tennyson's STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 15 Gareth and Lynette, Lancelot and Elaine and The Passing of Arthur; Lowell's The Vision of Sir Launfal; George Eliot's Silas Marner. 2. Study and Practice. — This part of the examination pre- supposes a more careful study of each of the works named below. The examination will be upon subject-matter, form and struc- ture. In addition, the candidate may be required to answer ques- tions involving the essentials of English grammar, and questions on the leading facts in those periods of English literary history to which the prescribed works belong. The books set for this part of the examination are : — 1906, 1907 and 1908. — Shakespeare's Julius Ccesar; Milton's U Allegro, II Penseroso, Comus and Lycidas; Burke's Speech on Conciliation with America; Macaulay's Essay on Addison and Life of Johnson. (b) Either Latin or French. — The translation at sight of simple prose or verse, with questions on the usual forms and ordinary constructions, and the writing of simple prose based in part or in full on the passage selected. II. — Mathematics. (a) The elements of algebra through affected quadratic equa- tions. (b) The elements of plane geometry. While there is no formal examination in arithmetic, the im- portance of a practical working acquaintance with its principles and processes cannot be too strongly emphasized. The candi- date's proficiency in this subject will be incidentally tested in its applications to other subjects. In geometry, the candidate's preparatory study should include independent solutions and demonstrations, — work that shall throw him upon his own resources; and his ability to do such work will be tested in the examination. An acquaintance with typical solid forms is also important, — enough, at least, to enable the candidate to name and define them and to recognize the relations borne to them by the lines, planes, angles and fig- ures of plane geometry. TM NORMAL - H >L, SALEM. III. — United Siaies History. Any school text-book on Unite S rates history will enable can- didates to niee: this requirenient ; provided they enough of geography to ilhonine the history, and make themselves familiar with the grander features of government in Massachusetts and the United States. >llateral reading in United States history is strongly advised — also in English history so far as this his- tory bears conspicuously on that >f the United States IT. — i : ■ (a) Physiology and Hygiene. — The chief elementary facts of anatomy, the general functions of the various organs, the more obvious roles of health, and the more striking effects of alcoholic drinks, nai :::::- n -rnulants upon those addicted to their us (b and c) Am Two of the Following Sciences, — Physics, Chemistry, Botany and Physical Geography, provided One of the Twc either Physics Uhemistry. — The chief elementary facts of the subjects selected, so far as they may be presented in the courses usually levoted : :_:em in good high schools. It will be a distinct advantage to the candidate if his preparation includes a certain amount of individual laboratorv work. A laboratory note-book, with the teacher's endorsement that it is a true record of the candidate's work, will be accepted as par- tial evidence of attainments in the science with which it deals. The original record should be so well kept as to make copying unnecessary. V. — Drawing and Music. (a) Drawing. — Mechanical and free-hand drawing. — enough to enable the candidate to draw a simple object, like a box or a pyramid or a cylindri. with plan and elevation to scale, and to make a free-han:. ; ke ::h of the same in perspective. Also any one of the three topics. — form, color and arrangement. — Such elenier: _ facts ; an instructor should know in teaching singing in the schools. — including major and minoi keys, ample two. three, four and six part measures, the STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 17 fractional divisions of the pnlse or beat, chromatics, the right use of the foregoing elements in practice, and the translation into musical notation of simple melodies or time phrases sung or played. Division of Examinations. Candidates may be admitted to a preliminary examination a year in advance of their final examination, provided they offer themselves in one or more of the following groups, each group to be presented in full: — II. Mathematics. IH. United States history. IV. Sciences. V. Drawing and music. Preliminary examinations can be taken in June only. Every candidate for a preliminary examination must present a certificate of preparation in the group or groups chosen, or in the subjects thereof. (See blank at end of this catalogue.) The group known as I. Language must be reserved for the final examinations. It will doubtless be found generally advisable in practice that the group known as IV. Science should also be so reserved. Candidates for the final or complete examinations are ear- nestly advised to present themselves, as far as practicable, in June. Division of the final or complete examinations between June and September is permissible, but it is important both for the normal school and for the candidate that the work laid out for the September examinations, which so closely precede the opening of the school, shall be kept down to a minimum. Equivalents. Persons desiring to enter the school, whose course of study has been equivalent to, but not identical with, the requirements of admission are advised to correspond with the principal. Each case will be considered upon its merits, and in deciding the ques- tion of admission there will be a serious effort to give all the credit that is due. Experience in teaching, according to its amount and kind, is regarded as very valuable. 18 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Special Students. College graduates, graduates of normal schools, and other per- sons of suitable attainments, also those who have had considerable experience in teaching, may. by arrangement with the principal, select a years work from the regular program. If this work em- braces not less than twenty recitation periods per week, and in- cludes the course in advanced pedagogy, the student will receive a certificate for the same upon its satisfactory completion. Prompt and regular attendance is exacted of special students, as well as of those in the regular cours A definite statement of the applicant's purpose in desiring to enter the school is required, and those who do not intend to re- main at least one-half year are requested not to apply. The design of the school does not include the admission of transient students, for the purpose of taking partial or special courses^ except in cases which are really exceptional. Personal culture for its own sake is not the end for which the school receives its students. It exists and will be administered for the training and improvement of teachers, and all its facilities will be put to their utmost use for the advantage of teachers. Th during recent years, many teachers have been allowed to attend the exercises in selected departments, — so far as the privilege could be granted without injury to regular class work. — al- though their names have not appeared in the catalogue as stu- In other cases it is sometimes found possible for those who have had experience in teaching, without a previous normal course, to enter the school and derive great benefit from a half year's work. Some of our most earnest students have been of this class. The school is also open to teachers who desire to enter existing classes on Saturdays. But special students who do not intend to identify themselves with the school are not desired. Neither is there room for those who do not have a serious pur- pose of study and self-improvement, but who wish rather tc secure a brief nominal membership in a normal school, in order to obtain a better position. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 19 Students from outside the State. Non-residents of this Commonwealth who are able to satisfy the requirements for admission may be admitted as students on payment of fifty dollars per year, of which sum one-half is paya- ble at the beginning of the year, and the other half at the middle of the year. Elementary Course of Study. The elementary course of study is designed primarily for those who aim to teach in the public schools below the high school grade. It comprises substantially the following subjects : — I. The study of the educational values of the following sub- jects, and of the principles and methods of teaching them : — (a) English, — reading, oral and written composition, gram- mar, rhetoric, English and American literature. (b) Mathematics, — arithmetic, algebra and plane geometry. (c) History, — history and civil polity of the United States and of Massachusetts. (d) Science, — physics, chemistn 7 , mineralogy, botany, zool- ogy, geography, physiology and hygiene, nature study. (e) Drawing, vocal music, physical training, manual training. II. (a) The study of man, body and mind, for the principles of education; the study of the application of these principles in school organization, school government, and in the art of teach- ing; the history of education; the school laws of Massachusetts. (b) Observation and practice. The time required for the completion of this course depends upon the students. It may not exceed two years for those of satisfactory preparation and superior ability; for others, three years are needed to do the work properly. In many cases more than two years are insisted upon. A diploma is given when the course is satisfactorily completed. Conditions of Graduation. The school does not accept the satisfactory accomplishment of the class work required as constituting a complete title to a diploma. While the fact is recognized that predictions regarding the success or failure of normal school students as teachers alwavs 20 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. involve a greater or less degree of uncertainty, it is nevertheless felt that the school owes its chief responsibility to the Common- wealth. Its duty is not fully discharged by the application of academic tests; certain personal qualities are so essential and their absence so fatal to success in teaching that the candidate for graduation must be judged in part from the standpoint of personality. It is the aim of the school — and this is insisted upon year by year with increasing strictness — not to bestow its diploma upon those who are likely to be unable in ordinary school work to use the English language with ease and correctness. The power of the student to teach, so far as that can be ascertained and judged, is of course an essential element in the problem, and those who are manifestly unable to do so will not be allowed to graduate, whatever their academic proficiency may be. THE MODEL AND PRACTICE DEPARTMENT. [Mr. Churbuck, Principal; Miss Paine, Critic] In co-operation with the school committee of the city of Salem, the State normal school maintains in its building a complete sys- tem of model and practice schools, beginning with a kinder- garten, and fitting pupils for the local high school. The system also includes a kindergarten in the Bertram school building. The teachers are nominated by the principal of the normal school, with the approval of the Board of Visitors, and they are elected by the city school committee. The assignment of pupils is in the hands of the local authorities, so that the children do not constitute a picked company. The aim has been to secure in these schools as nearly as possible the actual conditions existing in public schools of a high class. It is an essential part of the plan upon which they are conducted that they are to be kept at a reasonable size. The schoolrooms themselves are of ample dimensions, well lighted, thoroughly ventilated, furnished with approved furniture and other appli- ances for work, and provided with sanitary conveniences of the best kind. By the generosity and interest of many parents they are also provided with beautiful decorations. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 21 In planning the instruction in these schools the aim is to con- nect it as closely as possible with the work in the normal school, to the end that the art of teaching may here exemplify the theory in which the normal students are taught. A large part of the instruction is either supervised or actually given by normal school instructors. The critic teacher devotes her entire time to supervising the normal school students in their relations to the practice schools. Her intimate acquaintance with the work of the schools in their various departments and her duties as a supervisor make it easy to guard in the most efficient manner the interests of the children. The regular teachers are selected solely by reason of their effi- ciency, and the facilities whose use is made possible by the con- nection between the practice schools and the normal school are put to their greatest service. While nothing is allowed to stand in the way of obtaining the most satisfactory results, it is be- lieved that both directly and indirectly the students of the nor- mal school derive great advantage from their association with the teachers and pupils of the practice schools. Besides the regular observation and practice teaching, oppor- tunity is provided for those students who intend to teach in the first grade to observe in the kindergartens; and arrangements have also been made for a few students to gain a limited amount of experience in teaching in the upper grades in one of the Salem grammar schools. AIM AND SCOPE OF THE COURSE OF STUDY. Literature. [Miss Oldham.] Since a revelation of human experience is found in literature, from it one learns what life really is. In it is expressed the vital element in life. One of the aims of the course is to empha- size the importance of making a study of literature based upon this estimate of its value. Another aim is to train the students to appreciate the fact that the ethical significance of this subject, through the appeal it makes to the emotional nature, is beyond estimation. '2'2 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. As an aid to the interpretation of the various selections chosen for study, the students are led to take the point of view of the author, and to rise to his mental plane as far as they are capable of doing. Whatever is accomplished in this direction ought to result in giving vitality and actuality to the work. Among American authors studied are Poe and Hawthorne as representatives of romanticism in our literature. Bryant. Em- erson, etc. Selections that are distinctively characteristic of each and that are indicative of his excellence along a particular line are chosen for study. The attention of the students is also called to noteworthy productions of contemporary American writers. The course includes also the study of Wordsworth, Browning and Tennyson. In the second year, in addition to the work in appreciation, methods of presenting the subject of literature in the grades are considered and a course of study is formulated. English Language. [Miss Learoyd, — Miss Baker.] The study of language is continued throughout the two years. As the students come from many different schools, their prep- aration is varied. It is therefore necessary during the first year to consider the essential qualities of language, in order to lay a uniform foundation for the intelligent discussion of the work in language in the lower grades. The subjects taken are considered chiefly from the standpoint of the teacher. Suggestions are given for planning and pre- senting subjects to a class, and opportunity 7 is given for practice before the normal school class. Frequent oral and written criticisms are required. The students are expected gradually to assume the responsibility of the work in the classroom. As far as possible, the work in English is associated with that in other branches, and the student is made to feel the importance of a skilful use of language both in speech and in writing. Those who are especially deficient in knowledge or in practice are expected to give the subject extra attention. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 23 In the second year the teaching of English is considered. Good books on the subject are read by the class, for the purpose of gaining a high ideal and inspiration for the work. A course of study in general language work is suggested, to be used as a basis for class discussion and as a guide for individual work in planning different types of lessons. The best order of topics in grammar is considered, and exercises are planned and given. The observation of the work in the practice school serves to emphasize and illustrate points discussed. Reading and Voice Training. [Miss Rogers.] The work of this department is two-fold, including: (1) the personal training and culture of the student; (2) the training in methods of teaching reading in primary and grammar schools. During the first year the work is directed toward the personal improvement of the student. The selections for oral reading lessons are taken from the authors studied with the teacher of literature. This is an attempt to impress, in a practical way, the fact that appreciation of the beauty and meaning of literature is the basis of intelligent reading. Three purposes are kept in mind : to develop the power of getting the thought of an author, to create a desire for revealing it to others, and to acquire skill in its expression. In the second year attention is directed to the pedagogical aspect of the subject. Students are not taught to depend upon one " method " of teaching reading. The aim is rather to famil- iarize them with typical methods, as the alphabetic, word and phonetic, and to give them certain practical tests by means of which any popular system may be examined and judged. It is hoped in this way to lead students to be broad-minded enough to teach with enthusiasm any method now in use, knowing that suc- cess depends upon the sympathy and wisdom of the teacher, rather than upon the method. Schools in which various methods are used are visited by the students, who report observations to their class-mates. Text-books are reviewed, programs for reading and literature in the grades are examined, and several books treating 24 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. of reading and the voice are read. Typical lessons on the use of the dictionarjr and reference books are presented. Some prac- tice is given in story-telling and interpreting poems to children. Phonetics from the teacher's standpoint is studied in connection with Professor Eobbins's pamphlet on that subject. During both years of the course a small amount of time is devoted to vocal gymnastics and the mechanical side of reading. Elementary Latin. A course will be offered annually, if a reasonable number of students desire it, for the benefit of special and advanced stu- dents who wish to be prepared to teach Latin in the upper grades of the grammar schools. At least three years of good work in Latin will be necessary for those who take the course, and more is desirable. The course will deal chiefly with methods of teach- ing, and with that purpose in view the amount of previous study, above indicated, will be assumed. Elementary Numbers and Arithmetic. [Miss Baker.] These two courses extend throughout the senior year, the first half being devoted to the primary work and the second to that which is more advanced. Elementary Numbers. — As concepts result from an acquaint- ance with visualized form, this work is based entirely on objects. Number is the measure of quantity. Quantity is symbolized in geometrical material, and measuring is the controlling element of the system. . The units of measurement are the inch, square inch and one inch cube, the objective work thus being put into the three realms of length, surface and volume. All abstract combinations are preceded by constructive effort, and, in fact, construction goes hand in hand with measuring in forming the basis of the system. Advanced Arithmetic. — This subject is understood as in- cluding percentage and the applications of percentage, mensura- tion properly belonging to geometry, and evolution and involution to algebra. Hence commission and brokerage, banking, stocks STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 25 and bonds, and interest, are some of the important parts of the work. It is not the purpose to treat these topics after the manner of a commercial school, neither is it intended to deal with them in an impractical way, inconsistent with that of the business world. The aim is to treat them as they occur in actual transac- tions, irrespective of text-book boundaries. It is believed that the financial column of a newspaper should not be wholly unin- telligible to a pupil leaving the grammar school. Students are required not only to give teaching exercises in their classes in the normal school, but also to present the same exercises to classes in the model schools. Geometry. [Miss Martin.] The course is planned to include (1) a review of demonstra- tive geometry and (2) a detailed study of concrete or observa- tional geometry. The two are carried along together. In the demonstrative work special attention is given to secur- ing exactness in reasoning and in expression and to helping stu- dents towards that mastery of the subject which may reasonably be expected of teachers in the elementary schools. In this con- nection the origin and development of the science are made a matter of study, and the scope and plan of the ordinary text- book in geometry are noted. The general object in this part of the work is to confirm and supplement and make exact the stu- dent's knowledge, to broaden his outlook, arouse fresh interest, and awaken a sense of the teacher's responsibility towards the subject. The course in concrete geometry develops the elementary defi- nitions, and such of the simpler truths of the science as lend themselves to objective treatment. A topical outline in the hands of students furnishes a basis for discussion of methods of work and the selection and arrangement of material. The leading text-books in this department are reviewed, and to some extent practically tested. Laboratory work and field work are promi- nent features. The general aim is to put students in possession of approved methods of teaching in elementary schools those parts of geometry which by general consent are adapted therefor. STATE FORMAL SCHOOL. SAL Algebra. In Maetik.] ■ The general purpose is to review and snpplemen: the studs knowledge of the subject-matter, and to establish clear and sim- ple methods of teaching the more elementary | This in- volves (1) a thorough study of the processes underlying I solution of simple equations and the simpler forms of quadra: 2 ) the discussion of methods of solution of equations of these types, and (3) the discussion of problems involving such equa- tions, together with devices for making real to a class of begin- ners the conditions of a problem. The aim is to develop faci in algebraic operations, to give an intelligen: gras] >f the sub- ject-matter, and to form the habit of regarding ti bom I teachers point of view. United States History. [Miss Dea*~e.] The study of Tinted States history is included in the second year of the course. The work is two-fold in character, consist- ing (1) of academic study and review for the purpose of famil- iarizing students with the entire sequence of American hi and (2) of demonstration and discussion of suitaK- :>ds of procedure in public schools. Sufficient work is don-^ fcc in right methods of teaching and studying history in general. arses of study from various schools and cities are compared and discussed, with a view to understanding their requiremezi-- and pedagogical basis. The academic work follows a topical analysis. These to] are deveky-: in various way-. — -ometimes in '' I rat- lines, as recitations, as written themes, debates. : by r-rion analysis. Special topics are assigned from time to time for in- dividual research and presentation. An acquaintance with the works of standard authors is sought. The library is well equipped with reference books and text-books. The students are encour- aged to make use of material from public libraries in their own cities and of historical museums which are easilv access STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 27 Topics of current interest are given attention, and thinking along lines of public welfare is encouraged. The elements of civil government have their place in the outlined courses, and the attempt is made to render all work in this field as practical as possible. It is greatly to be desired that the high schools should offer courses in United States history, to prepare students for normal school work. Until such courses are generally offered, history in the normal school cannot be developed along the broad lines necessary in the preparation of teachers. Chemistry and Physics. [Mr. Adams.] The aim of the work in these subjects is not to turn out trained chemists or physicists, or to prepare students for college exam- inations, but to lead them to acquire the power of accurate ob- servation, correct expression, and clear thinking; to train them to follow directions and to acquire habits of carefulness, accuracy, neatness, independence and originality. The greater part of the time will be given to the consideration of those facts and principles which have practical application in common life, or will aid in the interpretation of the various phenomena related to the other subjects in the course. Special emphasis is placed upon the method of teaching by experiment, and the art of correct questioning. Means. — The ends enumerated are secured by a course of ex- periments selected and arranged so that most of the work can be done by each individual. Each student is provided with a note- book, and has a separate compartment at the laboratory bench. The chemical laboratory is equipped with slate tables, hot and cold water and individual fume closets. Both laboratories con- nect with a large lecture room, provided with roller shutters for darkening the room, and an electric lantern. The students have considerable practice in presentation work before their classmates, and in examining them on the experi- mental work, and thus acquire confidence to stand before others, and skill in directing their thinking. 28 STATE FORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Most of the work is qualitative, but some quantitative experi- ments are taken, to afford practice in weighing and measuring. Students are constantly encouraged to consider their work from the teacher's point of view. This gives professional value to the course, which cannot be obtained by work that is wholly academic. Geology. [Mr. Moore, — Mr. Adams.] The course in geology is of a rather general character. It aims to give a broad view of earth phenomena. While some familiarity with the technicalities of the science is sought, the emphasis is placed upon the knowledge which will be valuable to teachers in the public schools. Incidentally, the training and experience gained in this work are found helpful in the next year in the study of geography. The course includes a study of minerals, rocks, soils, glacial phenomena and river and wave action. The work is planned from the standpoint of the mature stu- dent, but its application to the teaching of children is never lost sight of. For this reason, the formal, logical order in which the elements of a science are usually presented in secondary school text-books finds a place, if anywhere, only in summaries and reviews. The work proceeds instead in the more natural order in which the study of earth processes ought to be pursued with children. The locality in which the normal school is situated offers un- usual advantages for the study of earth forces and earth ma- terials. Out-door lessons are given, to show how to discover and interpret geological and geographical phenomena. These lessons not only prove valuable in stimulating the powers of observation, but they illustrate the kind of work which it is hoped will sooner or later find its way into the elementary schools. Botany. [Miss Learoyd.] The study of plant life is undertaken with two ends in view, — to arouse students to an enthusiastic observation of plants, •and to give them a thorough foundation for the stud}^ of nature STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 2T» with children. The evolution of plants, the life history of types and the relations of plants to their surroundings are the general subjects considered. As soon as possible the students are expected to work out for themselves the life history of a plant. To aid them in this work, laboratory manuals, an abundance of good reference books, diagrams and pictures, microscopes and prepared slides are fur- nished. Students are urged to gather specimens whenever it is possible. Some time, outside of the recitation periods, is ex- pected to be given each week to laboratory or field work. Occa- sional field trips are intended to arouse enthusiasm in the study of plants, and to show the necessity of an intimate acquaintance with plants in their natural surroundings. Geography. [Mr. Moore.] The course in geography is primarily a study of methods of teaching. The insufficient preparation of the pupils and the lack of time in this course limits the work, however, to the most fundamental topics. But whether it be in the acquisition of facts which serve as the basis for the professional discussion, or in the specific problem of how to present a lesson to children, right methods of teaching are emphasized. This school possesses many advantages for the study of geog- raphy. The building is most favorably situated in a locality rich in geographical illustrations. In one direction are found the agricultural and pastoral conditions typical of a rural com- munity, and in another the important industrial and commercial features of city life. The influence which the natural features exert upon the life of the people is clearly shown, and the home locality epitomizes the geographical relations existing through- out the world. Another advantage is the close connection which exists be- tween the normal and model schools. What is actually done in the classes of children taught and supervised by the normal school instructor is made the basis of professional discussions. A marked result is the intimate agreement which exists between theory and practice. 30 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. * Geography is a study of relations. In all the work, therefore, in both the model and normal schools, prominence is given to the control which relief and climate exert upon the life of the people. At every point the understanding is called upon to aid the mem- ory, and geography thus changes from a subject furnishing only information to a study in which reasoning holds an important place. In the study of the home locality the fundamental principles which underlie the teaching of all geography receive a compre- hensive treatment. In fact, as the home locality illustrates to a greater or less degree the world in miniature, so the teaching of the local surface features exemplifies the methods to be followed in the study of the whole earth as the home of man. The intelligent reading of maps and the full use of good pic- tures are, next to a study of the home locality, the most impor- tant topics of a general nature in this course. The successful interpretation of the map symbols, in fact, depends upon the thoroughness with which the study of the home locality has been pursued in connection with the local map, and upon the close association which has been made between the pictures of distant places and their symbolic representation. To read a map intelli- gently is to know geography. Zoology. [Miss Goldsmith.] The purpose of the work in biology is to give the students as clear an idea of evolution as is possible in the time allowed, and to lay a broad foundation for a comprehensive understanding of the study of human physiology. For the accomplishment of this purpose the course begins with the lowest forms of animal life, and continues with the more complex organisms in the order of their development. In each stage of development the characteristics of type forms are emphasized. Allied forms are considered in connection with the type forms. In the laboratorjr, by dissection and careful observation, both external and internal organs are studied with reference to their structure, position, relation and function, together with the M O O: r- O o o DO o 3> H O 7) -< STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 31 special office of each in the animal economy. Additional knowl- edge is gained by reading and drawing. There are frequent discussions of the problems of heredity, of environment and adaptation to environment, and of the survival of the fittest. These lead to a clearer insight into the forces at work which influence the life and structure of the various forms of the animal kingdom. Practice in the application of the principles taught is intended to prepare those who are to become teachers to meet the require- ments of the public schools. The fine collection of specimens at the Peabody Academy of Science affords unusual facilities for the pursuit of this branch of study. In the spring, opportunities are given to become familiar with the common birds and their songs. . The aim of the work in biology is to fit the normal students to lead children to love and care for God's creatures; to observe their habits more closely, thereby learning lessons in industry, perseverance, patience and fidelity; and to give them a keener appreciation of the wonders and the beauty of the abundant life with which we are surrounded. Nature Study. [Miss Warren.] From the courses in botany and zoology of the junior year the pupils have gained some knowledge of the theory of evolution, and have learned many important facts concerning both plant and animal life. The aim of the work in nature study is to find a way in which to interest the child in the life of the wonderful, world about him, and through this growing appreciation to awaken the desire to find out things for himself; also, to correlate the knowledge gained by the study of his environment with his work in litera- ture and art. The child must first see things before he can reason about them. Unconsciously through this reasoning valuable lessons are learned, and by a better understanding of the great truths of nature, he gains a broader conception of life. 32 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. The value of the work depends upon the spirit in which it is undertaken. The habit of observation and inquiry will lead to a sympathy with nature that will be not only a source of happiness, but will tend to an enrichment of life. The Manual Arts, [Mr. Whitney, — Mr. Newell.] Drawing. Since drawing is a mode of expression, a language positively necessary in school life and in life outside the schoolroom, the student in the normal school finds ample opportunity and occa- sion for its use. The subject is not treated as an end to be obtained, but as a means to this end, — for its educational value in developing free expression, self -activity and spontaneity on the part of the pupil. No definite outline of work in drawing is planned for the students in the normal department of the school, but a correla- tion with the other studies in the curriculum is found absolutely necessary; thus a very broad field for its use presents itself. If the pupil in the normal school discovers by the constant use of drawing its value to him as an individual and as a pupil, he will desire to draw, and will appreciate its value to the child in the grades when he becomes a teacher. Outlines of work for the grades in the practice school are arranged from month to month, and the normal school pupil has the opportunity of consulting these, and of observing their appli- cation in the work with children. In studying drawing for its value in a general education, we find that the branch of science involves the necessitv of making and reading structural drawings and that nature study demands constant expression, a study of form, growth, movement and color, and a representation of appearance both in outline and in color. The geography and history require frequent expression, and a ready response of the hand to the thought of both pupil and teacher. In this connection the study of landscape sketching and composition are valuable. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 33 The language and literature afford a broad field for illustrative sketching, for picture study and for other branches of drawing and observation, which will help to develop an aesthetic appre- ciation of art. The pupil who can illustrate a problem in number, arithmetic or geometry makes the facts in the problem much more definite and vital to himself and to the class. In such ways as those suggested above, the department of drawing in the Salem Normal School aims to make itself helpful in meeting the problems of school life, and is found complemen- tary to the other studies in the course. Blackboard Sketching. A course of lessons in free blackboard sketching is given each year, as it is found a very important accomplishment for the grade teacher. Such work awakens interest, holds the attention, and cultivates on the part of the child a desire to express himself in the same free and spontaneous manner. These blackboard lessons include the necessarv strokes and exercises preliminary to sketching, and their application to the drawing of any common object or sketch which will picture to the child the topic under consideration. They include also school calendars, illustrative sketches for festivals, holidays and impor- tant events in history, as well as sketches useful in number, reading, geography, etc. Lectures. Occasional lectures are given by the State supervisor of draw- ing and others upon important subjects influencing drawing in the public schools, and upon more general topics in art. To these are added a short course on the history of art, touching the vari- ous historic periods from Egypt to the Renaissance. Constructive or Manual Work. This course consists of the use of problems in constructive drawing and design, not as an end, but for the making of good and useful objects which the needs, interests and surroundings of the pupil in the school or home may suggest. 34 STATE XOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. It is not a course based on a stereotyped set of models or prob- lems, but one in which the problems are evolved from day to day by the conditions which may arise, — problems which may be sug- gested by some other lesson, discussion or event in the school. Occasionally these problems deal with the individual needs or interests of a pupil, and again relate to the life of the class or school as a whole. The work includes weaving, sewing, basketry, leather, metal and wood work, and various other lines of applied design. This line of industry develops a wide range of thought, im- agination and activity. It renders a drawing intelligible through experience, and is conducive to the cultivation of reasoning power and manual skill. Music. [Mr. Archibald.] The work in this department is designed to enable students to teach such principles of music as will apply to the several grades of the public schools. Tune, time, technique and the aesthetics of music are consid- ered. The exemplification of these subjects is observed in the model schools, and practice in these lines is afforded the student under the guidance of the regular grade teachers. One period weekly is given to general exercises in music, when the following subjects are considered : — (a) The principles of conducting, as applied to chorus singing and general school work; also practice in the same. (5) Musical appreciation through the listening to good music performed by the students, and incidentally the study of famous composers and musical form. (c) Chorus singing in preparation for the graduation exercises. Physiology and Hygiene, [Miss "Warren. J The work in phvsiologv being a continuation of the work in biology, the same general plan is followed. The main point in the consideration of the subject is hygiene. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 35 To know how to care for the human body that the best results may be obtained, it is necessary : — 1. To consider it as a whole. 2. To become familiar with the functions of the organs and with their mutual dependence and co-operation. The laboratory method is continued in this branch of study. The dissection of a mammal as a complete organism, and of in- dividual organs of different animals, throws much light upon the structure and functions of corresponding organs in man. A life-sized manikin, a human skeleton and microscopic slides are valuable aids in the work of anatomy. Each of the following systems, the respiratory, the circulatory, the digestive, the excretory, the nervous, the muscular and the osseous, is studied in detail. The intimate relation of each system to the others, and the importance of keeping each in a healthy condition to ensure an harmonious whole, are strongly empha- sized. In addition, attention is given to the special senses, particu- larly to the structure and hygiene of the eye and ear. The effect of alcohol and tobacco upon the human system is taken up in connection with the consideration of the organs and their functions. One practical application of the knowledge obtained in the class room is the intelligent treatment of emergency cases. Some instruction in regard to symptoms is given, in order to convey to the minds of the students an estimate of the general appearance of the more common diseases. This will help them, in their future work as teachers, to detect conditions of doubtful health, and to comprehend intelligently directions given by school physicians. Special stress is laid upon the hygienic effects of clothing, bathing, food, sleep, recreation and rest. As the body is the instrument through which mind finds ex- pression, a better understanding of its mechanism and of hygiene is very important for those who are to take up the teacher's pro- fession, that they may be instrumental in helping the young to a more harmonious and effective physical development. 36 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Physical Training. [Miss Warren, — Miss Rogers.] In the work of physical training the Swedish system of gym- nastics is employed. Physical exercise has a two-fold purpose ; it invigorates the body and relieves mental tension. The floor work includes all the fundamental positions of the body, as bending, twisting, jumping, running and marching. It is supplemented by the use of apparatus, which gives added in- terest and enthusiasm to the work, and a greater opportunity for muscular development. The gjmmasium is provided with stall bars and benches, double boms, jumping standards, vertical ropes, a Swedish ladder and a horse. The work is varied occasionally by gymnastic games, which are calculated to develop self-control, precision, dexterity and con- certed action. Ehythmic movement is a strong feature of the work. During the senior year opportunities are given the students for conducting gymnastic exercises as practice in teaching. Association in the gymnasium promotes a social spirit, which serves as a bond of union, and tends to give a healthy impetus to the fulfilling of the requirements in other departments of study. The aim of the work is not only to help the student to gain a more intelligent mastery of the body, but also to train the mental and moral faculties. The vitality and usefulness of the human body are also fur- thered by correct carriage, proper breathing and regular bodily exercise. Whatever, therefore, conduces to develop the chest, straighten the spine, purify the blood and distribute it to the various organs, and to improve the personal appearance generally, is a matter of vital importance. We cannot too strongly emphasize the fact that a sound mind in a sound body is a prime requisite for success and effectiveness in any department of life. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 37 Psychology. [Miss Goldsmith.] The course in psychology extends throughout the junior year. The aim is to secure a clear and sufficient understanding of (1) the processes by which knowledge is acquired and elaborated. (2) the sources of interest and attention, and (3) the functions and training of the will. The development of the various facul- ties of the mind, and the relation of different branches of study to this process, receive careful attention. The work is done so as to secure a good grasp of what is really valuable to a teacher, rather than to spend time upon what is of only speculative in- terest. The various sources of psychological knowledge — intro- spection, observation of mental phenomena, the study of litera- ture and physiological science — are all recognized as having important uses in the study of the human mind. Pedagogy. [Mr. Pitman.] The course in pedagogy extends throughout the senior year. Its chief aim is to develop an understanding of the principles of education as derived from the study of psychology in the junior year, and of their application to school organization and govern- ment and to the art of teaching. The course comprises a study of the various educational agencies; of the educational values of the several subjects of instruction, and of their interrelations; of school organization and management; of the physical condi- tions of the school; and of the hygiene of the schoolroom. The work in the model schools is done in connection with this course, and the observations and experiences of the students are drawn upon extensively to illustrate the classroom discussions. The course also includes a study of the lives of the great educa- tional reformers and of their contributions to the science of education. This work is largely biographical, and is devoted chiefly to a critical study of a few of the leading educators of modern times. A portion of the course will be devoted to a consideration of the historical development and the characteristic features of the 31 as- 38 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. sachusetts school system, and a sufficient knowledge of the school laws will be imparted to make the students familiar with the rights and duties of teachers. Teachers now in the service who are intending to enter the school to take a year's special work should make a thorough study of James's Briefer Course in Psychology, Halleck's Psychology and Psychic Culture, or some other book of equal scope. LECTURES. Several lectures of general educational interest are given each year by people of prominence. The aim is to make them of direct practical value to the students. To this end they will be arranged as far as possible in systematic courses, and ample opportunity for discussion will be afforded. Since the issue of last }^ear's catalogue the teachers and students have had the privilege of listening to the following lectures : — " The New Musical Education." Mr. Carroll Brext Chtltox, Editor-in-Chief, Music Lovers Library. " Reminiscences of John Brown." Hon. Fraxk B. Saxborx, Con- cord. " People I have met." Col. Thomas Wextworth Higgixsox, Cam- bridge. " Arts and Crafts in the Public Schools." Mr. Hexey Turxer Bailey, Editor, School Arts Book. " The Past of Salem." Hon. Robert S. Raxtotjl, Salem. Graduation address : " Moral Education in the Public Schools." Prof. George H. Palmer, Harvard University. Interpretative reading : " Julius Cassar." Mr. Hexry Lawrexce Southwick, Dean, Emerson College of Oratory. " Utilization of Museums of Art by Schools and Colleges." Mr. Walter Sargext, State Director of the Manual Arts. " The School as a Social Force." Rev. Walter Scott, Secretary, New England Education League. " Relations between Teachers and Supervisors." Mr. Frederic L. Burxham, State Director of the Manual Arts. "What a City owes to its Boys." Hon. George H. Martix, Secre- tary, Massachusetts Board of Education. " The New England Poets." Supt. J. H. Carfrey, Wakefield. H I m o H cz m O O STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 39 " School Management." Mr. Grexville T. Fletcher, Northamp- ton. " Industrial Education." Mr. William A. Baldwin, Principal, State Normal School, Hyannis. " The Ideal of Womanliness." Mrs. Ella Lyman Cabot, Chairman, Board of Visitors. " Education for Efficiency." Mr. James P. Muxroe, President, Massachusetts Reform Club. THE LIBRARY AND READING ROOM. The school is well equipped with books of reference, and a general library, which is especially strong in works of history, biography, pedagogy, poetry, and dramatic and miscellaneous literature. It contains, besides several thousand text-books, 4,382 volumes, exclusive of a large number of public documents cover- ing a period of many years. The best periodicals of the day are also kept on file. There is a complete card catalogue by titles and authors, and a system of references by topics already con- tains several thousand cards, and is constantly being extended. No needless restrictions are placed upon the use of the library and reading room, and the students are encouraged to resort to it freely and constantly. THE MANAGEHENT OF THE SCHOOL. Students in a school for the professional training of teachers should be self-governing in the largest sense of the term. Each student is allowed and is encouraged to exercise the largest degree of personal liberty consistent with the rights of others. The teachers aim to be friends and leaders, rather than gov- ernors and masters. They will not withhold advice, admonition and reproof, if needed; but their work in such lines will be done with individuals, and in the most helpful and generous spirit. Those students who, after full and patient trial, are found un- worthy of such consideration, are presumed to be unfit and unlikely to become successful teachers, and will be removed from the school. Others also, who, by no fault of their own, but by the misfortune of conspicuous inaptitude, through phys- 40 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. ical or mental deficiencies, for the work of teaching, will be advised to withdraw, and will not be graduated. Man}*- matters pertaining to the general welfare of the school are referred for consideration to the school council. This is a representative bod}^ consisting of the principal and two other members of the f acult} T , and three members chosen by each class. Thus the students, through their representatives, have a voice in the management of the school, and also assume their share of the responsibility for its success. GENERAL INFORHATION. The Location and Attractions of Salem. Xo place in northeastern Massachusetts is more easily accessi- ble than Salem. It is on the main line of the eastern division of the Boston & Maine Eailroad system, connecting also with the Saugus branch at Lrynn. A branch road to Wakefield Junction connects the city with the western division. There is also direct communication with Lowell, Lawrence, Haverhill, Eockport, Marblehead and intervening points. Trains are frequent and convenient. Salem is also the centre of an extensive network of electric railways. Students coming daily to Salem on Boston & Maine trains can obtain season tickets at greatly reduced rates. Trains on the Marblehead branch stop at Loring Avenue, on signal, and many students find it more convenient to purchase their season tickets to that station. Salem is the centre of many interesting historical associations, and within easy reach are the scenes of more important and stirring events than can be found in any other equal area of our country. The scenery, both of seashore and country in the neighborhood, is exceedingly attractive. There are many libra- ries, besides the free public librae, and curious and instructive collections belonging to various literary and antiquarian organ- izations, to which access may be obtained at a slight expense. Lectures are frequent and inexpensive. The churches of the city represent all the religious denominations that are common in New England. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 41 Expenses, Aid, Board, etc. Tuition is free to all residents of Massachusetts who declare their intention to teach in the schools of this Commonwealth. Text-books and supplies are free, as in the public schools. Arti- cles used in school work which students may desire to own will be furnished at cost. Students who come to Salem to board are advised to bring with them such text-books of recent date as they may own. To assist those students, residents of Massachusetts^ who find it difficult to meet the expenses of the course, pecuniary aid is fur- nished by the State to a limited extent. Applications for this aid must be made in writing, to the principal, and must be accom- panied by such evidence as shall satisfy him that the applicant needs assistance. This aid, however, is not furnished to resi- dents of Salem, nor during the first half-year of attendance at the school. At the last triennial reunion of teachers and students a move- ment was inaugurated to collect a " Students' Benefit Fund," whose income may be employed to aid worthy and needy persons while pursuing their studies here. At this time the sum of nearly $300 has been contributed for this purpose. This is now known as the " Capen Memorial Fund." The " Beckwith Memorial Fund " has been established for the purpose of exemplifying in a permanent and productive way the love and esteem which the teachers and former pupils of the Salem Normal School bear for their late principal, Dr. Walter Parker Beckwith, and for the sake of perpetuating his name in connection with the school. A memorial of this kind was always considered by him to be a most fitting and practical ex- pression of appreciation and respect. At present this fund amounts to about $250. It is deposited in Massachusetts savings banks, and the income, like that from the benefit fund started in July, 1904, is to be used in rendering financial assistance to promising and needy students. The principal of the school will be glad to receive and ac- knowledge contributions from those who wish to honor the memories of Dr. Capen and Dr. Beckwith. 42 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Besides these benefit funds, there is a small loan fund from which deserving students may borrow money to aid them in completing the course. The expense of board is moderate; two students rooming to- gether can usually find accommodations within eas}^ distance of the school, including light and heat, at prices ranging upward from $3.50 each, per week. A record of places where board may be obtained is kept at the school, and reasonable aid will be given to students who are seeking boarding places. It is advisable to- make inquiries some time before the beginning of the school year.- A lunch counter is maintained in the building, from which is served at noon each school da}^ a good variety of wholesome andi attractive food, at very reasonable prices. Promptness and Punctuality. 1. Students living at home, on finding themselves likely to be- absent more than one day, are desired to make known the fact in writing. 2. Students who are withdrawing from school must return the books and other property of the school, and receive regular dismission. Those who fail to do so proniptty must not expect at a later date any recommendation or endorsement from the teachers of the school. 3. Absences for the purpose of teaching or of acting as substi- tutes for more than one day must be arranged in advance. In general, absence for this purpose during the first year of a stu- dent's course will not be regarded with favor. 4. Students must be present at the opening of school after any recess or vacation, and must remain until all are excused. 5. Students boarding in this vicinity, away from their parents, whether over or under legal age, must keep the principal informed of their addresses. All boarding places are subject to the judg- ment of the principal. 6. Students boarding in Salem must not make arrangements involving absence from any school exercise without previously obtaining permission. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 43 Employment for Graduates. The increase in the number of normal graduates employed in Massachusetts as teachers has been, especially during the past twenty years, very much greater proportionately than the increase in the whole number of teachers. But even at the present time less than one-half of all the teachers in the State are normal graduates, and the demand is annually greater than the supply; especially for the higher grammar grades there is a marked scarcity of strong candidates. This school does not undertake to guarantee positions to its graduates, but it is a fact that prom- ising graduates are rarely without positions six months after graduation. The principal takes pleasure in assisting graduates to obtain such positions as they are qualified to fill. To that end he is glad to correspond or to confer with school authorities. He is also glad to be informed as to the degree of success which has attended the efforts of former students. Scholarships for Graduates. There are offered at Harvard University four scholarships, each of an annual value of one hundred fifty dollars, for the benefit of students in the Lawrence Scientific School who are graduates of any reputable normal school in the United States. Notices to School Officials. All interested persons, especially those connected in any way with educational work, are cordially invited to visit the school, to inspect the building and equipment, or to attend the exercises in its class rooms or practice schools at any time and without ceremony. During the summer vacation, some person qualified to give information regarding the school, its work and the conditions of admission will be at the building each forenoon. Eequests for catalogues are always promptly honored. Superintendents and other school officials are requested to send to the school copies of their reports, courses of study and other publications of common interest. The courtesy will be appreciated and reciprocated. 44 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Every person claiming to be a graduate of this school should be able to show either a diploma or a certificate to the fact of graduation. Since Jan. 1, 1900, all students who have left the school by reason of graduation, or otherwise in good stand- ing, possess either a diploma, a certificate showing the comple- tion of a year's work, or a certificate of honorable dismissal. The last-named paper is not to be understood as a recommendation of proficiency in scholarship or teaching ability. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 45 CONTRIBUTORS TO THE DECORATIONS OF THE BUILDING. The Commonwealth of Massa- chusetts. The Salem Xormal Association. The Peabody Academy of Sci- ence. Mr. George R. Chapman. Richard Edwards, LL.D. Mrs. C. 0. Hood. Mr. James F. Almy. Miss Annie M. Phelps. Mr. Ross Turner. The Class of February, 1857 The Class of February. 1858. . The Class of July., 18E The Class of February, 1859. The Class of July, 1S59. The Class of February, 1860. The Class of July, 1861. The Class of January, 1S77. The Class of January. 1SS3. The Class of June, 1SS8. The Class of June, 1891. The Class of June, 1896. The Class of January, 18 The Class of June, 1897. The Class of 1898 The Class of 1899. The Class of 1900. The Class of 1901. The Class of 1902. The Class of 1903. The Class of 1904. The Class of 1905. The Class of 1906. The Model School Class of 1903. The Model School Class of 1901. Certain students and friends of Miss Elizabeth Weston. Certain students and friends of Miss Harriet D. Allen. Other teachers and graduates and others. The following citizens of Salem have generously contributed to the decorations of the schoolrooms in the practice school : — Mrs. James F. Almy. Mr. George A. Brown. Mr. William 0. Chapman. Mr. Robin Damon. Mr. William H. Gove. Mr. George B. Harris. Mrs. William M. Hill. Mr. Frank A. Langmaid. Mr. J. Henry Langmaid. Mr. Arthur L. Lougee. Mr. William Messervey. Mr. John M. Raymond. Mr. Ira Vaughn. Mrs. Charles F. Whitney. 46 STATE XORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. CONTRIBUTORS TO THE LIBRARY, Generous contributions to the library have been made bv The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of The Class of July. 1S63. January. 1869. January, 1S70. January. 1S74. January. 1S75. July, 1875. January, 1876. June, 1S76. January, 1SS0. June, 18S0. January, 1SS1. January. 1882. June. 1SS3. The Class of January, 1S85. The Class of June, 1885. The Class of January, 1SS6. The Class of June. 1SS6. The Class of January, 1SS7. The Class of January, 1889. The Class of January, 1S90. The Class of January, 1S91. The Class of January. 1892. The Class of June, 1S92. The Class of June. 1894. Mrs. Thomas Hawken. Many teachers and others. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 47 Register of Students. 1906=1907. Graduates— Class XCII— June 26, 1906. Olive Mary Adams, Myrtle Allen, . Helen Edna Baldwin. Helen Lonise Barrett, Carrie Isabel Black, Nona Ellen Blaekwell, Minnie Haynes Brown, Florence Elena Bimton, . Marguerite Cushing Buswell, Bertha Greenwood Cole, . Rosa Alice Curran, Lillian Anna Curtin, • . Pearl Frothingham Dame, Margarida Martha DeAvellar, Sallimae Morrill Dennett, Annie Montague Dickey, Annie Louise Dodge, Ethel Sleeper Evans, Carrie Madella Feltham, Josephine Patricia Follen, Edith Faulkner French, Mabel Alice Gauthier, Mary Elizabeth Giffin, Cecilia Eugenia Glynn, Marion Elizabeth Goodson, Alice Marion Grant, Mary Frances Harney, Mary Beatrice Hart, Margaret Frances Herlihy, Edna Hale Herrick, Ethel Putnam Herrick, Beverly. Maiden. Salem. Lynn. Ipswich. Somerville. Maiden. Cambridge. Salisbury. Salisbury. Haverhill. Chelsea. Somerville. Somerville. Amesbury. Danvers. Salem. Amesbury. Amesbury. Nahant. Haverhill. Cambridge. Salem. East Cambridge. Everett. Haverhill. Lynn. Lynn. Beverly. Georgetown. Georgetown. 48 STATE XORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Edith May Hicks, . Ethel Gertrude Higgins, Grace Eliza Hood, . Julia Mary Horgau. Elsie Marie Hussey, Jeaimette Jacobson, Dorothy Jasinsky, . Mary Russell Jones, Helena Genevieve Keef e, Lena Marion Kelly, Margaret Louise Kerrigan, Flora Agues Knight, Ruby Evelyn Ladd, Florence Marie Leavitt, Florence Louise Little, Elinor Catherine Long, Mary Frances Low, Ruth Low. Carolyn Elizabeth MacDonald, Emily Katharine McVann, Helena Murphy, Elizabeth O'Brien, . Mary Magdalene O'Donnell. Mary Frances O'Rourke. Susan Morse Paine, Phebe Harriet Patterson. Xellie Louise Quennell, Edna Richer, . Christine Alberta Ross, . Josephine Florence Rowe. Ethel Louise Sargent. Mabel Florence Sawyer, . Alta Foster Silsby, . Gertrude Evelyn Simpson. Gertrude Josephine St. Clair. Margaret Marie Sullivan, Etta Murray Taylor, Martha Lois Taylor, Miriam Adelaide Tighe, . Helen Louise Tuck. Louise Evelyn Urquhart, Mildred Frost Williams, . Clara Witham. Frank William Woodlock. Marion Young, Ljtiii. Xewtonville. Salem. Cambridgeport. Swampscott. Cambridge. Swampscott. Beverly. Xortk Andover. Amesbury. Haverhill. Lynn. Lynn. Danvers. Cliftondale. West Lynn. Wakefield. Wakefield. East Cambridge. Lynn. Xorth Cambridge. Marblehead. Lynn. Peabody. Salem. Lynn. Somerville. Lynn. Lynnfield Center. Cambridge. West Medford. Chelsea. Everett. Lynn. Beverly. South Groveland. Manchester. Chelsea. Salem. Chelsea. Wakefield. Danvers. Everett. Allston. Lvnn. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 49 Certificates for One Year's Work. Clara Melvin Clement, . . ... . Merrimac. Elsie May Ross, Ipswich. Special Students. Gladys Blodgette, (Ipswich High School.) Teacher. Elizabeth Sarah Callahan, . (Dean Academy.) Teacher. William Francis Donovan, . (Cambridge English nigh School.) Evie Fontaine Kelley, . (Somerville English High School.) Teacher. Lottie Henson Kidger, (Lowell School of Practical Design.) Margaret Elizabeth Savage, . (Bellows Falls High School.) Teacher. Mary Taylor Towle, (Plymouth Normal School.) Teacher. Rowley. Charlestown, X. H. Cambridgeport. Somerville. Everett. Bellows Falls, Vt. Dover, X. H. Students of Fannie Nelson Allen, Evelyn Lewis Alley, Lydia Christina Anderson, Bernice Josephine Andrews, Mary Eleanor Anthony, . Annie Dodge Archer, Ellen Abigail Baker, Elsie Moore Baker, . Alice Tracey Barrett, Katherine Estelle Barrett, Helen Gertrude Bassett, . Elizabeth Annie Batchelder, Ethel May Batchelder, . Georgia Edna Becker, Margaret Annie Beirne, . OlgaBeloff, . Harriet Sarah Bishop, Sigrid Christine Bjorklund, Walter H. Bonelli, . Eva Mary Bousquet, the Elementary Course. . Roekport. . Gloucester. . Everett. . Hamilton. . Lynn. Salem. . West Somerville. . Ipswich. . Everett. . Newburyport. . North Andover. . North Reading. . East Northwood, N. H. . Swampscott. . Peabody. . Amesbury. . Arlington. . Maiden. . Boston. . East Cambridge. 50 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Martha Eva Bradstreet. Susie Frances Bray, Marion Eunice Brennan. Alice Marie Bresnahan. Annie Beryl Bruorton, Addie Margaret Bucksey. Helen Louise Burnham, Ellen Jane Butler, . Avis Carleton, . Alice Asenath Caverly, Fred Allan Chapman, Annie Melissa Chase, Jessie Amelia Christie. Alice Belle Clapp, . Mary Alice Cohane, Grace Webster Cook, Jenny Farquhar Copland Rosalind Fidelia Corbin. Ann Johnson Coughlin, Abbie May Croscup, Bessie Warren Curtis, Alice Gertrude Dacey, Ethel Rinimer Dalrymple Florence Davidson, . Bertha Street Davis, Pauline Dawson, - Edith Rosamond Day, Eleanor Frances Desmond Gertrude Dinan, Catherine Lauretta Dinneen. Julia Agnes Dinneen, Carolyn Louise Donohoe, Anastatia Emaline Donovan. Mary Teresa Dowling, Louise Maria Durkee, Eleanora Wilhelmina Erickson Alice Hildreth Fern aid. . Florence Emma Field, Joyce Lisabel Fielder, Mildred Hodges Fisher, . Irene Marie FitzGerald. . Verna Belle Flanders, Elizabeth Agnes Flemming, Eunice Fogg, . Alice Winifred Gaus'han, Beverly. Everett. Melrose. Lynn. Reading. Peabody. Revere. Revere. Beverly. Lynn. Salem. Beverly. Maiden. Dan vers. Salem. Peabody. West Somerville. Everett. Manchester. Maiden. B oxford. Arlington. Marblehead. Salem. Melrose. Ipswich. Gloucester. Maiden. Wakefield. "■ East Cambridge. East Cambridge. Lynn. Wakefield. Everett. North Wilmington. Chelsea. Reading. Winchester. X. H. Everett. Cotuit. Cambridge. Lynn. Beverly. Everett. Cambridge. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 51 Agnes Katherine Geary, Cambridge. Edna Florence Gordon, . . West Somerville. Ethel Maria Grady, . . Lynn. Marie Louise Gunn, . Lynn. Alice Sarah Hainsworth, . North Andover. Mary Wealthy Hall, . Salem. Marion Hamilton, . . Everett. Ethel Louise Harrington, . Everett. Nellie Frances Harrison, . . Beverly. Marion Frances Hatch, . . Amesbury. Bernice Elvira Hendrickson, . Wakefield. Louise Arvilla Hill, . Lynn. Gladys Isabel Houghton, . North Andover. Robert Bigelow Houghton, North Andover. Lillian Angelia Hutchins, Freedom, Me. Millie Alice Isaac, . Cambridge. Asadour John Jinishian, . Marash, Turkey. Fannie Olena Johansen, . Newbury port. Esther Johnson, . Lynn. Frances Priscilla Johnson, Somerville. Hilda Matilda Johnson, . . Pigeon Cove. Marguerite Loretta Kelley, Lynn. Amy Sargent Kelly, Danvers. Alice May Knox, Groveland. Rheta May Lattie, . - Maiden. Laura Marie LaVallee, Chelsea. Ella Adeline Lee, Lynn. Helen Evans Williams Lee, Chelsea. Leon K. John Levonian, . Anitab, Turkey. Alice Merrill Locke, Salem. Helen Farrington Locke, Salem. Helen Onida Locke, Chelsea. Catherine Isabelle MacKeen, Peabody. Clara Frances Managhan, Amesbury. Harriet Feme Marshall, . Gloucester. Elizabeth Plummer Martin, Beverly. Ethel Mary Martin, Beverly. xlnnie Gertrude McCabe, Cambridge. Mary Frances McGrath, Amesbury. Marie Eunice McHugh, Lynn. Laura Elizabeth Merrill, Salem. Lynda Viola Merrill, • Somerville. Mildred Frances Merrill, Somerville. Winifred May Merrill, Lynn. Ethel Sargent Merrow, Salem. 52 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Florence Louise Moore, Mary Kathleen Moore, Agnes Louise Moran, Agnes Gertrude Morris, Mary Catherine Murray, Florence Gertrude Musso Elmina Marie Nadeau, Grace Isabel Nelligan, Irene Haskell Newell, Bertha Frances Niles, Maude Marion Norris, Eleanor Elizabeth O'Brien, Kathleen Holmes O'Brien, Mary Gertrude Obst, Mary Anne O'Callaghan, Nora Anastatia O'Connell, Hazel Isabell Oliver, Helen Margaret O'Rourke, Mabel Julia Palmer, Abbie Isabel Patten, Harlan Berkley Peabody, Mabel Luella Peterson, Lillie May Phillips, Marion Edith Powers, Amy Estelle Putney, Lena Leslie Quimby, Amy Frances Ramsdell, . Florence Emma Ramsdell, Lizzie Evelyn Ramsdell, . Ella Robens Rand, . Bessie Eva Rea, Alice Louise Reid, . Ethel Emma Rees, . Marion Ella Remon, Katharine Elizabeth Reynolds, Julia Marie Ryan, . Mary Blanche Sargent, ., Elspeth Cumberland Saunders. Lillian Maude Schofield, . Grace Elizabeth Schroeder, Margaret Eleanor Scully, Helene Maria Seils, Eleanor Louise Sheehan, . Bertha Theodora Sjoberg, Clementina Duncan Smith, Greenwood. Beverly. Cambridge. Lynn. Revere. West Lynn. Salem. Cambridge. Chelsea. Salem. Salem. Cambridge. xlmesbury. Cambridge. North Cambridge. Wakefield. Wakefield. Peabody. Lynn. Beverly. Lynnfield. Wenham Depot. Nahant. Chelsea. Billerica. Amesbury. Beverly. Lynnfield. Lynnfield. Amesbury. North Andover. Somerville. Lynn. Salem. Salem. Cambridge. Groveland. Andover. Ipswich. Chelsea. Chelsea. Cambridge. Lynn. Everett. Cambridgeport. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 53 Ethel Marion Smith, Mary Elizabeth Sullivan, Eva Mae Taylor, Annie Cecilia Trelegan, Edna Elizabeth Wallis, Julia Anna Walsh, . Marie Theresa Walsh, Frances Elizabeth Welch, Anna Greenleaf West, Edna Blanche West, Hazel Elizabeth Weston, Mildred Alison Wetmore, Sybil Marion White, Mabel Charlotte Willey, Maiden. Cambridge. Lanesville. Cambridge. Rowley. North Cambridge. Manchester. West Somerville. Haverhill. Amesbury. Hamilton. Essex. West Lynn. Sauo-us. Summary, Special student-. .... Students of the elementary course, 7 169 176 Whole number of students from opening of school, Whole number of graduates, .... Number of certificates for one year's work, 5,441 2,855 44 Certificate Required for Admission to a Preliminary Examination, .1907. .has been a pupil in the School for three years, and is, in my judgment, prepared to pass the normal school preliminary examination in the following group or groups of subjects and the divisions thereof: — Group II Group IV. Group III Group V Signature of principal or teacher, Address, . Certificate of Graduation and Good Character. This is to Certify that M is a regular graduate of a four years' course of the_ High School, and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, he is a person of good moral character. - 'Principal. _ . «-_i907.